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home : from the bishop : from the bishop January 22, 2019

Hey folks, it's Lent again --A Lenten message from Bishop O'Connell
Entering the desert: Fast and abstinence

Dear Sisters and Brothers in Christ,

“These 40 days of Lent, O Lord, with you we fast and pray.”  This line from a popular hymn we sing in our parishes during the season of Lent contains a very important truth.  During the days and weeks of penance that lie ahead – from Ash Wednesday, February 18th until Holy Thursday, April 2nd  – it is with YOU, Lord, with YOU we fast and pray.  The model Jesus gave us for “these 40 days” was his own experience of the desert and the temptations that followed him there where he encountered Satan face to face.  And yet, Jesus, there in the desert – alone, fasting and in intense prayer – beat back the devil and triumphed over temptation, as strong and as unrelenting as it was throughout those 40 days.

We enter the desert of Lent like Jesus, led by the Holy Spirit, to face our devils, our temptations head on.  But we are not alone.  “With YOU we fast and pray” is our song.  The Lord Jesus Christ is with us.  And so, too, is the Church, the entire community of faith observing Lent.  “With YOU, too, we fast and pray.” Here is what the Catholic Church in the United States asks of us as baptized Catholics:

The days of fast (only one full meal) and abstinence (no meat) are Ash Wednesday and Good Friday.

All other Fridays of Lent are days of abstinence (no meat).

Those between the ages of 18 and 59 are obliged to fast (only one full meal) as above.  From the age of 14, people are also obliged to abstain (no meat: this obligation prohibits the eating of meat, but not eggs, milk products or condiments of any kind, even though made from animal fat).

The obligation to observe the laws of fast and abstinence is a serious one for Catholics.  Failure to observe one penitential day in itself is not considered a serious sin.  It is the failure to observe any penitential days at all, or a substantial number of days, which must be considered serious.

The obligation, the privilege really, of receiving the Eucharist at least once a year – and often called “Easter duty” – for those in the state of grace should still be fulfilled during the period from the First Sunday of Lent, February 22nd to Trinity Sunday, May 31st.  However, the Church’s law does permit this precept to be fulfilled at another time during the year when there is a just cause.

I want to encourage Catholics to get to Confession and to make use of the sacrifices and traditions that have always been part of our Lenten practices in the Church.

We do, indeed, fast and pray with the Lord Jesus and with our fellow Catholics.  May this Lent be a time of penance, grace and joy for us all.

Sincerely yours in Christ,

Most Reverend David M. O’Connell, C.M.
Bishop of Trenton

Bishop David M. O'Connell, C.M.

Hey folks, it’s Lent again

In nostalgic moments, Catholics of my generation and older reflect on their experience of the Catholic Church while growing up.  It would be no exaggeration to say the scene looks very different now from that of the ’40s, ’50s and early ’60s.  When Catholics of this “vintage age” get together, it is not uncommon that these memories surface – good and/or bad – in conversation.  Stories about “the nuns” or “Father X and Y” keep the conversation going along with “sneaking some altar wine” in the sacristy, getting “smacked on the knuckles with a ruler” for not knowing the Catechism, ransoming countless “pagan babies” by filling a collection card with dimes, doing chores around the church, convent or school, serving a well-attended Mass in the wee hours of the morning, struggling to remember things to say in Confession, parish picnics or bingo and so on.  These memories are amusing to most of us “cradle Catholics,” and we grew up no worse for the wear. 

Of course, there are also some bad experiences and unhappy memories of things that happened to some few Catholic youngsters that changed their lives for the worse – perhaps for decades – and when revealed, released hurt and real harm which everyone in the Church profoundly regrets.  Life is a mixed bag and the Church is part of the mix, good and bad.  And the memory holds on to both.

The good stuff keeps us coming back, thank God, and, although the Catholic Church has dramatically changed since our younger days, our experience of and in the Church has formed and shaped the kind of Catholics we are today.  One of those experiences is the season of Lent.  It is not an experience simply locked in the memory.  Lent is something we, as Catholics, share every year – part of an ancient Catholic tradition.   And that tradition, that time, that season is upon us once more.

As adult Catholics, we understand that Lent is more, much more, than just giving up candy for 40 days as we did in our childhood.   Lent is a period that the Catholic Church sets aside each year to prepare ourselves for the celebration of Holy Week and Easter, the annual commemoration of the Lord Jesus’ death and resurrection.  He died to save us from our sins, so the preparatory penance and sacrifices of Lent in which we engage make sense.  He rose to give us new life, so the purification and prayer of Lent help make us worthy recipients of that gift.

In the Catholic Church’s earliest history, Christians “fasted” before the solemn feast of Easter.  As a practice, however, fasting was part of religious observance long before the Lord Jesus Christ was born.  The experience of fasting can be found throughout the Old Testament.  For the ancient Jews, fasting involved a total abstinence from food and drink before special religious holidays and occasions.  It was a sign of repentance and total dependence upon God, emphasizing the spiritual over the material, a certain longing for God who provides for us in our need.

In the New Testament, the practice of fasting continued in the experience of the Lord Jesus himself.  Shortly after his Baptism by John in the Jordan River, Jesus took to the desert or wilderness where, for 40 days and 40 nights, Matthew, Mark and Luke tell us he fasted and prayed.  It was there that he confronted and rejected Satan and his temptations before beginning his public ministry.

The observance of fasting was part of the spiritual discipline of the early Church in preparation for Easter Baptisms, gradually increasing in duration from a few days to the “forty days” or “season” before Easter established by the Council of Nicea in 325 A.D.  The purpose of fasting noted in the writings of the early Church Fathers seemed clearly penitential. 

It should be noted, however, that Church historians and scholars disagree about the historical details of the Christian obligation to fast and the emergence of Lent as a season before or even related to Easter.  It has, nevertheless, survived the passage of time to the present day, offering Catholics the opportunity to pray, do penance, make sacrifices and give charity for an entire season lasting 40 days prior to the celebration of Holy Week and Easter.

The practice of fasting has been modified in duration and severity.  There are two types of fasting observed in the contemporary Catholic Church: “fasting,” which refers to taking only one full meal during a day of fast with the other two meals not equal to that one full meal; and “abstinence” or refraining from eating meat or meat products on particular occasions.

During Lent, the Catholic Church requires fasting and abstinence on only two days: Ash Wednesday – the beginning of the season of Lent – and Good Friday, the commemoration of the Lord Jesus’ death and burial.  Abstinence from meat is required on all the Fridays of Lent. Baptized Catholics who have completed their 14th year must abstain from meat on days so designated.  Baptized Catholics are bound to fast from their 18th year to the beginning of their 60th year on those days.

Lent, however, is not simply about fasting and abstinence.  As a season of forty days and nights, this time of penance is an opportunity for Catholics to examine their lives, repent of their sins, pray more intently, create space in their lives by giving something up as a sacrifice and also giving something “to” others as charity (almsgiving).  The Catholic Church encourages these things of its baptized members, in addition to fasting and abstinence, to establish a uniqueness to this time of year that precedes the remembrance of the Lord Jesus’ ultimate sacrifice – his saving death on the Cross – and makes it special.  Sacrifice and penance for their own sakes do not offer much meaning.  Sacrifice and penance for a “purpose” mean a great deal.  Lent provides the purpose.  It should “sting” a little.  Easter provides the goal.  It should make us rejoice in the promise of eternal life given to the believer.

And, so, during Lent, we travel from “ashes to Easter.”  On Ash Wednesday we begin Lent with the ashes of burnt palm from the previous Holy Week’s Palm Sunday placed upon our foreheads in the sign of a cross.  “Remember, man, that you are dust and unto dust you shall return,” says the priest or other minister.  “Repent and believe in the Gospel.”  And the 40 days of penance begins.

What should you do?  Pray more intensely.  Deliberately set a time throughout the season when you will pray and not let anything else interfere.  Do not miss a single Sunday Mass.  Go to confession: rid yourself of all your sins, the baggage you drag through life, and make every effort to convert your heart and change your ways.  Who cares how long it’s been?  You’re confessing for you, not the priest or anyone else.  You need God’s mercy and this is the way Catholics ask for it.  Give something up, and not simply to go on a diet or stop smoking. 

To do those things with a spiritual motivation is a different thing.  Give something up to fill the emptiness with the Lord Jesus.  Let him satisfy the hunger you create by what you give up.  How much time do you spend on your computers or other devices?  Cut it back … for Christ.  Use the time to talk to people in person.  Cut back on the booze or foods you indulge in so much, too much.  Become thirsty and hungry for the Lord Jesus.  Do a better job, a more conscientious job at work or spend more time at home with family.  Get everybody to eat together once a week.  Give up some time for a worthy cause or effort.  Use your imagination and come up with something real, something to sacrifice.

Give something.  How much is that exotic coffee you “must” have every day or that donut?  Drop the cash in a container that you can give to charity.  There are so many needs out there.  Give to the poor.  Give the gift of time to your elderly parents or neighbors or kids for that matter.  Say something positive or nice to someone who needs to hear it.  Random acts of kindness!  Use your imagination and give something, do something to/for others and forget about yourself for awhile.

These are just some ideas to help Lent mean something this year.  Don’t let Lent pass you by.  Give one or more of them a shot.  You won’t regret it come Easter.

Yes, we as Catholics have a great many things to think about and remember from the “good old days.”  Some make us laugh, some make us cry.  Some make us wonder what we are doing with our lives.  Some make us ask, “Does anything we have done or do as Catholics make a difference?”  You and I both know the answer.  So, now, let God know.  Happy and blessed Lent.

Most Reverend David O’Connell, C.M.
Bishop of Trenton

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